Any society appears not as something homogeneous and monolithic , as well as internally broken up into different social groups , sectors and national communities. They are together able to objectively determined connections and relationships — social, economic, political, spiritual. Moreover, only through these connections and relationships they may be , to express themselves in society. This leads to the integrity of society and its functioning as a single social organism , whose essence is revealed in his theories of Auguste Comte , Herbert Spencer , Karl Marx, Max Weber , T. Parsons , R. Dahrendorf and other social scientists . We can say that the social structure is a collection of links and relations, which come together social groups and communities of people on the economic, social, political and spiritual conditions of their life.
All people (regardless of race or culture ) find expression in group life . Infant becomes a man once takes its place in the family , and the lack of human groups most adversely affects the child. Moving in the family cycle , the child gradually learns the inherent linkages to other groups that are constantly changing, will accompany him to adulthood.
An organization can be viewed as a process or as a phenomenon. As the process of organization — a set of actions that lead to the formation and improvement of relationships between parts of the whole. As the phenomenon of organization — a union of elements for the program or purpose and act on the basis of certain rules and procedures 1.
Social organization is one of the most interesting and mysterious phenomena of life , no less mysterious than the man himself, and not inferior to him in their complexity . Apparently so many attempts to create a fairly universal theory of organizations and the sociology of organizations have not yet been successful both in our country and abroad.
The main reason for this is the social object of research were once the focus of several sciences ( economics, sociology and Administrative Sciences ) , each reacted differently to this complex phenomenon and is still not developed common understanding of the nature of social organization , its genesis and history.
Social organizations interested in many social sciences, primarily sociological and economic , which determine the basic attitude to the object of study . Sociological view of science as a social institution , and economic sciences , as economic ( or socio- economic) institutions or systems .
Further , due to differentiation and the subsequent removal of social sciences from each other, and increased divergence between them about the nature of social organization. This is reflected in the present state of the theory as interbranch scientific field , designed to develop a coherent position on social organizations.
The general theory of social organization is based not only on the results of scientific research, but also the practical methods of designing and improving organizations. Significant contribution to the resolution of these issues have our scientists VM Burkov , VM Vyatkin , VS Dudchenko , VA IRIKOM , VM Ivanov , VI Patrushev .
Object is social groups and organizations that are seen as social organisms.
The object of study is the features and operation of general laws , development and evolution of social groups and organizations.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the organization as a social system and identify the role of social groups in developing societies .
To achieve these goals required the following tasks:
Define the concept of social organization and group.
Consider the type and structure of social groups.
Show of functioning social groups.
Consider the organizational structures of social organization.
Show the classification of organizations.
Expand the features of social organization.
Describe the functioning of social organization.
1. Social Groups
There are several types of social communities , which in everyday terms apply the concept of «group», but in the scientific sense , they represent something else. In one case, the term » group » refers to some individuals physically , spatially located in a particular place : individuals traveling in a car, living in the same city , etc. In the scientific sense, a local community is defined as » aggregation » — a certain number of people gathered in a physical space and do not exercise conscious interactions.
The second case — is to use the concept of group social community that brings together individuals with one or more similar characteristics . Examples of such communities can serve men, school leavers , etc. From a scientific point of view to determine the community of people with one or more similar characteristics precisely fits the term » category «.
Social group — a collection of individuals who interact in some way based on shared expectations of each team member on the other.
Analyzing this definition , there are two conditions necessary to aggregate group considered :
The presence of interaction among its members;
The emergence of shared expectations of each team member in relation to other members.
1.1 The behavior , social action, interaction
Social Action , behavior — a manifestation of social activity.
Activity common to all living beings. Forms of its manifestation are the voluntary movements — from elementary acts of mental activity. Business — internal (mental ) and external (physical) activity of human consciousness adjustable .
Activity belongs only to man. It includes goals, needs action.
Purpose — conscious image anticipate action. Need — a state of psychological stress caused by the need for any object ( object or person) , the desire to achieve the goal. Action — elementary act consisting of movements — a unit of work.
Behavior — directly observed activity , it can only be open, visible. The activities include conscious goals, planned actions . It happens for any remuneration, which serves as an external stimulus , such as respect , income , saving , etc. The behavior often does not pursue any goal . But there are needs , motivation, expectations. Outside the behavior is a set of actions. Motivation — a stimulus of behavior that gives the action a subjective sense. Action motivated if its purpose and logic are understood and realized by the current one.
Why study sociology motivation ? Without her account , we can not establish causal relationships that allow a fair view of the social process. But can be understood only meaningful action is aimed at a clear goal and use funds that you recognize relevant to these goals . Behavior that has chosen features, called tseleratsionalnoe . Weber based his theory of social action is this type. Comparing it with all other actions Weber highlighted the value- rational and traditional types. Value- rational action is based on the belief that our work is aesthetic, ethical , religious or any even value. It disinterested. With tseleratsionalnoe his presence brings the motive , means , focus on others, is distinguished by the lack of objective, outcome, success. Traditional action — action that is carried out automatically by virtue of habits. Nothing to do with tseleratsionalnoe not, therefore , a traditional non-social action . Weber defined social action as any consciously motivated and focused on other effects.
Through social action, each person feels the actions of others . There is an exchange activity or social interaction — interaction .
Interaction — a system of interdependent social action involving cyclic causality . Important role in interactions play system of mutual expectations , random or persistent , produced by people and social groups together. Passenger bus and conductor , interact , waiting , one that its hassle-free and time required dovezut to stop , the other — that the fare is paid. In this example, the interaction is usually random , but it can take to become more sustainable. With the strengthening of the interaction of mutual expectations are modified , they formed a certain set , which provides enough interaction orderly and predictable feel. Such ordered and stable social interaction called social relations .
The types of interaction.
Based on the different types of social action stand out: physical interaction (eg , fight ) , verbal (eg, a conversation between two friends) , gestures ( smile, handshake ). On the basis of social status (social spheres) can be divided into economic , professional , family-related , demographic , political , religious, territorial and migration cooperation.
All the variety of types of social interactions and social relations can be divided into primary and secondary sphere interactions . Primary field — the area of personal relationships and interaction that exists among friends, peer groups , in the family. Secondary sector — area of business or formal relationships and interactions in schools, shops, companies, banks , churches , etc.
To distinguish between the three main forms of interaction — cooperation, competition and conflict. Cooperation — cooperation of several individuals to solve the general problem . Competition — the struggle for the possession of scarce values maintained at pre-agreed rules. Conflict — hidden or open clash of competing sides in the struggle for scarce goods.
Social interaction ( interaction and exchange) .
In sociology, there are several theories of social interaction. Of particular interest is the theory of exchange J. Homansa . According to his ideas , specific features of the interaction is the exchange — a universal process. Exchange can be anything: words, symbols, gestures, material things , etc. The structure consists of agents sharing (two or more people), process (activities undertaken by the rules ), subject ( that change ), place ( place of exchange). George Homans put the basic rules of exchange:
The more rewarding this type of action , the more likely it will be repeated . If he regularly leads to success , the motivation for its repetition increases. In case of failure it is reduced.
If the success of a particular type of action depends on certain conditions , it is likely a person will seek them . If a businessman makes a profit as a result of doing things according to the law, he will obey the laws . And vice versa.
If the reward is great, the person is ready to overcome any difficulties for its reception.
When human needs are close to saturation, it is less and less is making efforts to meet them. That is, if an employee receives several months inflated salaries, it reduces productivity.
In general , social interaction — a complex system of exchanges due to ways of balancing the costs and rewards . This means that if the estimated costs above the expected reward , people begin to interact when they are not forced to .
Ideally, the exchange should take place on an equivalent basis. In fact, there are various deviations , so that the desire to save the effort and desire maximum success can operate simultaneously but in different directions.
Another major theory of social interaction was suggested by J. Midom , the founder of symbolic interactionism . Mead saw human behavior as social behavior , based on communication and believed that we respond not only to the actions of others but their intentions. Interaction between people is, in fact , a continuous dialogue during which they observe , comprehend the intentions of each other and react to them. Mead identified two types of actions :
1) minor gesture — is an automatic reflex like blinking ;
2) a significant gesture. In the latter case, people do not react automatically to external influence, and unraveling the meaning of the act before you answer it. They are able to do so because trained to provide value objects, actions and events, ie » convert » them into symbols . Since mastering the meaning of different symbols are in the process of social interaction , so far they have all found common. For example, a smooth gold ring on the ring finger of the right hand not a jewel , it is — a symbol of marriage. This simplifies the understanding of symbols . Symbolic interaktsionizm gives a more realistic picture of the interaction between people than the theory of exchange. But it focuses only on the subjective aspects of interaction for these unique individuals who come into contact .
By symbolic interactionism adjacent Etnometodolohiya , the founder of which was Harold Garfinkel . This science studies taken for granted rules governing interactions between people. These rules determine when it is appropriate to say something or remain silent , joke or evade mockery tactfully stop talking , etc. The purpose etnometodolohii — determine how violation of these rules makes it difficult interpersonal communication.
And symbolic interaktsionizm and Etnometodolohiya pay attention on understanding between individuals involved in the communication process. This interaction facilitates communication between people, making their behavior predictable.
1.2 Social Groups. Types of social groups
In the process of exchange — interaction occurs for many social relations and the formation of social groups.
Social group — a team or set of individuals , limited informal or formal membership criteria . Social group exists when its members are involved in social interaction — interaction involving mutual roles and communication. R. Merton identified three main features of the group. The first — a specific way of interaction between its members. Second — membership — a sense of belonging to this group. Third — group identity in terms of significant others .
Society is a collection of many different groups. Number of groups estimated to outnumber the population in 1,5-2 times. And all of this is that each individual can consist of 5-6 groups at once .
What are the functions of social groups?
Both society and the individual living under the laws of the group. Many human characteristics , such as the ability to think abstractly , to speak , to control ourselves, to act in accordance with moral norms , formed under the influence of groups. Consequently , the group plays a crucial role in socialization.
The Group is a major contributing factor to survival. Due to the roles team members can get food and defend against enemies more efficiently than acting alone.
People form groups to perform a specific job (for example — organization) and to meet the aspirations of the teams for social acceptance, respect and trust ( friends ).
All groups can tipologizirovat -specific intragroup interaction, socially relevant criteria , especially the identification with the group.
Classification social communities :
Based on the characteristics of the interaction of intra- out primary, secondary and small groups. The primary group consists of a small number of people , among whom relationships are established based on their individual characteristics . Charles Cooley introduced the concept of the primary group in relation to the family, among whose members consist of stable emotional relationships. The family is the primary because it is the first group in sotsyalyzyruyuschey life. Later social scientists have adopted the term in the study of any group in which formed close personal relationships , such as friends, lovers , neighbors , etc. The secondary group formed of people between whom almost no emotional relationship , their interaction motivated by a desire to achieve certain goals. In these groups, the main importance is not personal qualities and ability to perform certain functions. Examples of secondary groups can be called an organization — a company football club, government, etc.
To the small group are small in terms of the aggregate of people united by common goals , interests, values, norms and rules of behavior and interaction on a personal level . Small group is friendly businesses , small production teams, sports teams , etc. Sociologists distinguish the following features small group :
A limited number of members — from 2 to 20 people. Most small groups comprising 5-7 people ;
The stability of the structure based on individual uniqueness and indispensability of participants;
Group structure — consists of a system of informal roles, statuses includes a mechanism of social control ;
The smaller the group , the more intense the interaction , the more it is personal in nature ;
The number of connections between its members grows exponentially, the number of members increases arithmetically , a group of three people four possible relationships in a group of seven people — 120 links;
Group size depends on the nature of groups: group specific actions consist of 6-7 individuals , groups engaged in theoretical work , for example , parliamentary committees, comprising 14-15 people;