Список тем к экзамену 2013-2014
2 курс база 9 классов
Friends and Friendship
Season and Weather
Food and Meals
College. My Working Day
My English Studies
Choosing a Profession
Famous People of Belarus
Customs and Traditions of Great Britain
№1. About Myself
It is not an easy thing to speak about myself as it is hard to have a look at yourself from aside, but at the same time who knows you better than you yourself do?
Let me introduce myself. My full name is Kate. Now I’m seventeen. I was born on the sixth of October, 1996. I was born in Smorgon but now I live and study in Minsk. I finished school 2 years ago. Now I’m a student of the Higher State College of Communication.
Now it’s time to say some words about my family. It isn’t too big or too small. We are four in the family: my farther, my mother, my sister and me. My mother is 41, although she doesn’t look her age. She has aged quite well I think. She is usually well dressed, because she is the sort of person who always looks quite smart. She is a talented teacher and she is fond of her work. My father and me usually help her. Well, my father is quite tall and I took after him. He is a well-built with short black man with grey eyes. He is a worker. He wears practical clothes most of the time. My sister’s name is Maria. She is 8 years old. She is a pupil of the 2nd form. Her hobby is playing violin.
I have many interests and hobbies, for example, sports, travelling, music, so it’s not so easy to choose an occupation. I’m fond of travelling so I’d like to work for a tour company. I dream to visit all countries throughout the world and to see all sightseeings and great places. I hope my dreams will come true!I have not many friends but they are close to me.
My parents want me to be a computer programmer, like my Dad. I like computer games, I like to surf the Net, to communicate with people in different social nets and forums. I even have my own blog. But I don’t want a computer programming to be my profession. Also I like tennis, but I don’t want to be a professional sportsman.
I’d like my future profession to be connected with foreign languages and computers. Computer takes a lot of time. Computer is just my «serious hobby», that is useful for me. Now I can do a lot using it, but best of all I like computer graphics and designing. As for computer, I can say that English is just necessary for working with it.
So you can see that my biography is not very long because I’m rather young yet. I’ll try to work hard and to achieve all I want.
And finally, the things I hope to achieve in my life are: to have a very successful career, so this year after finishing school I will try to enter the University, to build the house of my dreams and to find someone in my life to share all that with.
To begin with, I’d like to say that a family is an emotional center of men’s lives. It is a transmitter of culture and knowledge. It is the best place for raising children. This process is a difficult one. It requires work, much tolerance and respect. In happy families, the parents are honest and frank with their children and children in their turn learn how to respect other people, how to establish relationships with others. And I’m lucky enough to have such a family. Of course, I admit that there were some troubles, misunderstandings, errors, unrealized dreams, but now all these things seem to be trifles because my parents don’t press me and they always support and encourage me.
And now I’m going to tell you a few words about my family, there are four of us and we are happy to be living together.
To tell you the truth we are three now because my sister is studying at the University now, she is a fifth year student and she tries to live on her own. But two times a month she visits us and we spend weekends together
My mother turned 48 this year, although she doesn’t look her age. She has aged quite well I think. Only now, she is beginning to show signs of old age – her hair has started to go grey and her skin is drier and she has tendency to put on weight. She is usually well dressed, because she is the sort of person who always looks quite smart. She is a talented engineer and she is fond of her work. Very often, she works over time. That’s why my father and me share household chores, but we can’t cook as well as she does. But my father like a real angler has some dishes that my mother can’t prepare as brilliant as he does (fresh-fish soup).
Well, my father is quite tall and I took after him He is nearly bald and the hair that remains is grey He wears practical clothes most of the time, but for work he has to look smarter so he wears a suit and a tie I think he is a pleasant man to deal with.
Almost every weekend we spend together. From May to September, we go to our summer cottage and work there. Once a year we go to Russia and visit my mother’s parents. And we like to spend our free time together. In summer, we are fond of traveling and almost every weekend our family goes to the forest to gather mushrooms or berries or we go for picnics.
It appears we like winter and especially winter holidays. In January every year, we go to the country to visit Granny. We really have a good time there. There is nothing for us like skiing in the winter forest. If you tried it once, you will never forget it. We also enjoy skating on the ice of the river nearby. When you return home, you wolf your dinner and make yourself comfortable in the front of the TV. Then you feel comfortable, just “as snug as a bag in a rug” as the saying goes.
To my mind, we are a united family; we share our joys and sorrow, our happiness and misfortunes. We enjoy the honest and open relationship in the family. There’s never been a division between them, our parents, and us, the children. Freedom has made us close. Despite being very busy at home every day, my parents always have time to talk to us, to get aware of all our troubles and problems, to teach us basic practical skills. As you can see, we are all great friends in the family.
№3. Friends and Friendship
Friends play an important part in our lives and while we get on well with a number of people, we are usually friends with only a few and the degrees of intimacy between people and the reasons for their mutual interests vary enormously.
It is usual for close friends to have similar ideas and beliefs, to have an attitude and interests in common – they often talk about being on the same wavelength. It generally takes time to reach this point, sometimes people “click” immediately. The more intimately involved people become the more they rely on one another, support each other.
Friendship between people grows when they do something useful together and when they have the same interests, understand each other very well.
So, I am lucky enough to have such a friend with whom I can share my joys and sorrows, who will help me if I have difficulties.
We got acquainted in junior forms and since then, we have been good friends. Nataly is an extremely intelligent girl. I admire her delightful sense of humor. But at times, she tends to act a little impulsively. Although she is generally a tolerant person, occasionally she reacts negatively if some small habit such as tamp annoys her.
In spite of her small demerits, I’m really fond of her. Of course, during so many years of friendship, we have some troubles, misunderstandings, even quarrels, but now all these things seem to be trifles, as 8 years together is quite a long term and we get used to each other and we are very close friends. Even now, we are entering the same university.
I’m fond of my friend, but I do get annoyed with her sometimes. She is always arguing with me and even when she is wrong she never apologizes.
To cut a long story short I’d like to admit that it is important to close friends to have the same interest, the same views.
In contrast with marriages, there are no friendship ceremonies, no ritual to strengthen the association between two people, but the experiences sand emotions do create a powerful bond.
When we want to buy something we go to a shop. There are many types of shops in every town or city but most of them have a food supermarket, a department store, men and women’s clothing stores, and a grocery a bakery and a butchery.
Many shops generally deal in certain goods. A lot of stores called department stores sell various items of consumer goods under one roof. The department store is a great convenience for customers because it saves our time. In the store the customers go to the counter, choose the goods and pay at the cash desk. But there are self-service departments with no salesmen.
Shopping is a part of everyone’s daily life and is a chore that needs to be done. So it is not necessarily a very interesting chore or a pleasure. My mother usually does the shopping in my family because she does most of the cooking so she knows what she needs to buy.
We usually do some shopping everyday and we go to the local shops for everyday things like bread and milk. At the week-ends when we have more time to spare we do our major shopping at the market, for we can by a lot of goods much more cheep there than at the local shops.
The market is large with over a hundred different stalls. A part of it is covered; the other is at the open air. A wide range of clothes, household goods, fruits and vegetables is on sale. And prices are often considerably lower than at the ordinary shops.
The goods are tidily arranged on trays and long shelves on which the various prices are clearly marked. There is plenty of room for the customers to walk about. The shelves are well stocked with a very wide selection of attractively packed goods – everything from quick frozen food to washing powder, from shoe polish to new laid eggs, from tinned fish to tooth paste.
We walk from shelf to shelf filling my bag. We have to be careful, the goods are so attractively displayed that we are tempted to buy things we don’t need or cannot recently afford.
We arrive home exhausted but a little proud of having saved of the house keeping money.
In fact every season is beautiful and unforgettable in its own way and every season has negative features of its own. Consider autumn, for example. It’s time when nature fades away, days grow shorter, cold weather sets in. Hoarfrost covers the ground at night. But worst of all is rain! How nasty autumn rain is! Even if it just drizzles. Some time it rains for a while, but most often it rains for hours. Then the rain stops, but soon it starts all over again. All these things are well known and nobody can say he likes them.
Yet there are people who like autumn. They try to look at the reverse side of the medal. Autumn, they say, is the time of harvest, golden leaves. It’s time when nature is quite and very attractive. Poets of all nations have sung autumn as the most beautiful time of the year. Golden autumn they call it. Golden, indeed. Yet autumn doesn’t appeal to me very much. It appears I like winter and especially winter holidays. In January every year I go to the country to visit my Granny. I really have a good time there. There is nothing for me like skiing in the winter forest. If you tried it once, you will never forget it. I also enjoy skating on the ice of the river nearby. When you return home, you wolf your dinner and make yourself comfortable in the front of the TV. Then you feel comfortable, just “as snug as a bag in a rug” as the saying goes.
There is no denying the fact that winter is a hard season. Think of keen frost and long black nights when the wind is howling outside. It is a season of frozen rivers and ponds, of slippery streets, but I don’t mind it all.
Now a few words about summer. The Great Russian poet Pushkin said: “oh, summer fine! I’d love you but for the heat, the mosquitoes and flies!” I share his opinion. Bathing on a hot day in cool water, picking up mushrooms in the forest, sunbathing on the beach. But the main thing is certainly holidays. Two months without lessons, without having to get up early in the morning. Indeed, summer is a great fun.
And yet the best season of the year is spring. In spring nature awakens from its long winter sleep. The trees are filled with new life, the earth is warmed by the sunbeams, and the weather gets gradually milder. The trees break in the blossom, the flowers begin to bloom, the busy bees are at work. The first birds, rooks and starlings, build their nests and every morning there is a loud singing of nightingale.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere in a certain place at a certain time. Weather always changes and is different all round the world. It may be warm and sunny in one place but cold, windy and rainy somewhere else.
Weather depends on many elements: temperature, air pressure, humidity and precipitation. Meteorologists are scientists who study what goes on our atmosphere. Meteorologists can predict weather only over a short period of time well. Sometimes, the forecast is not quite right as the weather is not an easy thing to forecast.
The weather is the favorite conversational topic in England. When two Englishmen meet, their first words will be «How are you?» And the next remark is about the weather.
Hobby is our personal interest and way to spend free time. The most popular hobbies are philately, collecting view-cards, coins, stamps badges and books. Some people are interested in modern architecture. Others are interested in photography. A useful hobby is collecting cassettes. You may have recordings of operas and pop music, folk music and jazz concerts. It’s impossible to describe all hobbies known in the world. The main thing is that they enrich our knowledge in some particular field, broaden our outlook and help us to relax.
Hobbies differ like tastes. If you have chosen a hobby according to your character and taste you are lucky because your life becomes more interesting.
Hobbies are divided into four large classes: doing things, making things, collecting things and learning things.
The most popular of all hobby groups is doing things. It includes a wide variety of activities from gardening to travelling and from chess to volleyball. Gardening is one of the oldest of man’s hobbies. Playing computer games is a relatively new hobby.
Making things includes drawing, painting, making sculpture, designing costumes, handicrafts. Some hobbyists write music or play musical instruments.
Almost everyone collects something at some period of his life. Some collections have no real value. Others become so large and valuable that they are housed in museums and galleries.
No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he always has the opportunity of learning from it. Learning things can be the most exciting aspect of a hobby.
Physical training is an important subject at school. Pupils play volleyball, football, basketball. I have been playing tennis for 5 years. Tennis became very popular now. I like to play tennis. I go to play tennis every day. Sport is very important part of our life. Many people go in for sports, they jogging, walking, swimming, skating, skiing, train themselves in clubs and different sections.
To be in a good shape I’m jogging every morning and do my morning exercises. Everyone should do all he can to stay healthy and choose the sport he is interested in. I do not understand people who say that they like sport, but they only watch sport on TV.
If one goes in for sports he feels much better, looks much better, sleeps much better. Your physical appearance will change too. You will be slimmer and trimmer. And what is even more important you will not get sick often.Why do I go in for sports? Because I think that it is very important for a man to be strong and well-built. Sport is not for weak, because, you have to learn how to lose, and it’s not easy. My favourite proverb says: «A sound mind in sound body».
№7. Food and Meals
It is not a secret that our meals influence our mood. Also it is very important for our health. Every single person should eat proper kinds of food – dairy products, meats, fruit and vegetables, fats and sugars, cereals and grains. Dairy products provide us with calcium, meat provide our bodies with protein, iron, zinc. Eating fruit and vegetables helps to keep us healthy too because they give us fibre, vitamins and minerals.
In this fast-moving world it is necessary to watch what we eat – it should be healthy food, not junk one, which has become very popular. Eating too much junk food can cause overweight and a heart-disease.
Eating is the process of chewing and swallowing food. So to live we should eat. We eat various food-stuffs: meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, fruit, eggs, bread etc. We partake of food several times a day. Partaking of food at a certain time is called meal. We have 3 meals a day: breakfast, dinner and supper.
In England meal times are: breakfast at about 8 o’clock in the morning, lunch at 1 p.m., tea at about 4 p.m. and dinner at 7 p.m. In many English working-class families dinner is eaten in the middle of the day instead of lunch. They have tea a little later — between 5 and 6 p.m., and then, in the evening, before going to bed, they have supper. The English breakfast is a bigger meal than ours. It consists of porridge with milk or cream, bacon and eggs, marmalade or jam with toast, tea or coffee. Lunch in England starts with soup or fruit juice. Then follows some meat with potatoes, carrots and beans. Then a pudding comes. Instead of it they may have cheese and biscuits. Last of all comes coffee. Some people prefer lemonade.
Tea is the third meal of the day. It’s rather light: a cup of tea with milk or cream and cakes or toast with jam. Dinner, the last meal of the day, consists of soup, fish or meat with vegetables, sweet pudding, fruit salad, ice cream and coffee.
Before having meals we must cook our food. The ways of cooking are boiling, roasting, stewing, baking, stuffing. Before having a meal we lay (or set) the table. We put plates, cups, spoons, forks and knives. When dinner is served, we sit at table.
Today there are a lot of different restaurants and cafes where you can eat delicious and not really expensive food. The service is usually excellent and friendly waiters help you to relax and enjoy your meal fully.
If we cook, we are interested in life. For many of us, cooking is a way of keeping some control over our own health and happiness. There is no way to guarantee a long and healthy life, but there are three ways to make it possible. The first is to drink a lot of water, the second is to walk a lot and the third is to cook.
Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other countries and continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places, or just for a change of scene. It is always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.
Those who live in the country like to go to a big city and spend their time visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dining at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do but walk and bathe and lie in the sun.
Most travellers and holiday-makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them — the sights of a city, old churches and castles, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, plains, waterfalls, forests, different kinds of trees, flowers and plants, animals and birds.
Later, perhaps years later, the photos will remind them of the happy time they once had.
If we are fond of travelling, we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers and see pictures of them on TV. The best way to study geography is to travel, and the best way to get to know and understand people is to meet them in their own homes.
People travel by train, by plane, by boat, and by car. All ways of travelling have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.
If you want to get somewhere as quickly as possible the best way is to travel by plane.
I have to notice that travelling by train is very popular. Nowadays, modern trains have very comfortable carriages and seats. There is also the dining-car in each train. You can see many interesting places and enjoy the nature, looking through the window.
Travelling by ship is not as popular as travelling by plane or train, but still some people like it.
And, finally, travelling by car is also very popular too. Many people choose this kind of transportation. They don’t need to buy tickets, book hotels and etc. They can stop whenever they wish, rest, take a walk and stay at the same place as much time as they want.
Hiking is very popular means of travelling, but not as popular as abroad. Generally, young people prefer this kind of travelling. Walking tours are very exciting.
And finally, it is commonly known that travelling is a great thing! Nothing can give you so many positive emotions and memories as travelling to any wonderful country or city.
№9. College. My Working Day
I’m lucky to be a student of the Higher State College of Communication. It is situated in Minsk in P. Brovka Street. Our college is one of the oldest educational establishments of our republic, built in 1930.
Our college is known for its high standard of teaching, creative and stimulation atmosphere. All the teachers are well-trained, they are real professionals. They work closely with the students organizing group and individual tutorials. The full term of study in our college is seven years.
The students have to attend classes regularly and be very active. They often take tests, conduct experiments, prepare reports and take part in conferences.
We study many different subjects in the college. Some of them are very difficult, but so very interesting at the same time. To succeed we must be good at mathematics, physics, foreign languages. We have lectures and practical classes every day.
Social life in our college is rich in different events. All year round we have a varied program of evening activities including parties, discos, theatre visits and outings to different places of interest. We take part in various sport competitions, theatricals and concerts.
Our college has various facilities for studies. There are many labs in our college, well-equipped with TV sets, video-cassette recorders, tape-recorders and other necessary apparatus. We also have some computer class-rooms, a large conference hall, a gym, a great number of class-rooms.
In1993 one more building was built for our college. Now after four years of the specialized secondary education the most capable students have an opportunity to get higher education.We have three hostels for those students, who have come from all over the republic. They are clean, cosy and comfortable. There are rich libraries and reading-rooms in both buildings where we can borrow all the necessary books for our studies. The students can prepare for seminars and practical classes there.
A good education helps the graduates of our college to find a place in society, to guarantee high wages.
№10. My English Studies
Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and efforts.
We started with the ABC, transcription and sounds. Then we learnt some English words, conversational phrases and dialogues by heart, read and translated easy texts, did exercises, wrote dictations. From lesson to lesson we improved our knowledge, learnt more and more new words, grammatical structures and put them into practice of speaking. You can’t speak English well if you don’t know grammar rules, so we often revised them.
Soon we were able not only to read and translate texts but to discuss their contents in English, to communicate with one another making useful statements in real-life situations. I’m not a good speaker of English yet. It takes me long to read English book in the original. But I hope that soon I shall know English well.
Learning foreign languages broadens our outlook, as it helps to understand the character and culture of the nations speaking those languages. Besides get some extra information that makes our lifestyle fuller and more enjoyable.
I’m happy to learn English. Today it is the most widespread language of progressive science and technology, international business, advertising, cultural relations and sports. I have wanted to study English greater depth since I began studying at school. As far as I’m concerned I want to know English for my education. If I learn it I can read and enjoy English literature and I can talk to people of many countries and I can also find a prestigious job in different fields In my opinion learning a foreign language is the best way to make my own language more flexible. Of course, nowadays English is really worth studying not only because it is the language of America or England but also because it is the international language of the world.
English is not an easy language to learn. There is a big problem of spelling, of the large number of exceptions to any rule. This language is very idiomatic and the prepositions are difficult to remember. English is one of those languages which may seem easy in the beginning, but then the bridge between basic knowledge and mastery takes a long time to cross. But if you do cross this bridge it will give you great satisfaction. You will be able to speak to people from other countries, to read foreign authors in the original, which makes your outlook wider. It is not surprising that many intellectuals and well-educated people know many foreign languages.
I want to know foreign languages because I have always been interested in foreign countries, their cultures and peoples. I want to learn English because it has become the international language, the language of progressive science and engineering. To know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated man, for every good specialist.
Sport is something without which a person can’t exist. It gives relaxation and hardens our spirit and body. Sport amuses us with the harmony of speed, fine share, risk and beauty. It makes people challenging. Sport convinces that physical ability of man is unlimited.
Everyone has its own idea or vision of sport. Some people are professionals, some play different sports in their free time, some are members of sport clubs and societies, and the others are enthusiastic fans. But there is hardly a man who has no links with sport life.
There is a great number of enthusiastic fans who use all their strength and energy to encourage others to set records. Sport is manifold and everyone seeks in it answers to his own problems. I think there is no alternative to sport as it is strength, health and beauty.
In my view if people don’t go in for sports they don’t enjoy life. Sport has become an essential part of my life. It makes me more organized, helps to be active and overcome difficulties as it trains not only the body but the will as well. Besides, sport for me is not only the way of keeping fit but it is also a way of socializing with different people.
To tell the truth I don’t doing sport regularly, but in the morning I do some exercise just to awake. Then some aerobics for myself, it puts me into the fine moods. In summer I go swimming, as there is a beautiful river with pure water near our summer cottage.
It appears I like winter and especially winter holidays. In January every year I go to the country to visit my Granny. I really have a good time there. There is nothing for me like skiing in the winter forest. If you tried it once, you will never forget it. I also enjoy skating on the ice of the river nearby. When you return home, you wolf your dinner and make yourself comfortable in the front of the TV. Then you feel comfortable, just “as snug as a bag in a rug” as the saying goes.
Of course I like to watch sports competitions on TV. Fortunately, they show different ones – football, basketball. I like tennis tournaments very much. I think it is a very intelligent kind of sport for clever thinking people. Also I admire skiing championships, biathlon, and swimming. But what I like most of all is basketball. The best games are viewed on TV. I came to know that modern basketball appeared in 1891 in the USA. The originator, John Naismith, was a coach at the college. He invented the baskets and the rules of the game. Since then the basketball has become very popular and is spread all over the world.
Now playing chess is my favorite sport. I often spend hours sitting at the chessboard. But when I play with a partner I never win. In fact this doesn’t worry me. Some players are unlucky. I’m even less lucky. Having lost the first game I usually watch others playing, then try again. But – alas! “You must give up chess,”- my friends say. But they don’t realize one important thing. I’m not really interested in the result. The process of playing is important for me.
№12. Mass Media
Nowadays Mass Media play an important role in our lives. It is a comprehensive term embracing TV, RADIO, CINEMA, NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, TELEPHONE, and INTERNET. They are one of the most characteristic features of modern civilization which unite people into one global community. They are the source of information for everybody. Newspapers, radio, TV and Internet inform us of what is going on in the world and give us possibilities for education and entertainment.
It’s difficult to imagine our life without television today. It offers a great number of programmes to satisfy all tastes. It’s gives all important information about the latest developments and it also broadcast a great number of educational programmes. Television has a great number of advantages as it informs, educates and entertains people all over the world. But there are some negative moments and the most serious is violence on TV. As it’s not always possible to prevent children from such perturbation, we should try our best to make this influence as weak as possible.
Press is also very popular nowadays. Britain is really a nation of newspaper readers. In fact they buy 15 million newspapers every day and about 42 million people read them. The national Press of Britain falls into two categories known as “popular” press and “serious” or “quality” Press. There are “popular” and “tabloids”, so-called because of their smaller size. Quality newspapers are more expensive, they concentrate on serious news, although they also have features, sports news and a guide to radio and TV programmes. It’s often said that popular press aims to entertain its readers rather than inform them.
Speaking about the internet I can say that it is not only entertaining us but also let people communicate to each other. There are a lot of people whose relatives or children or close friend live in out-of-the-way places, but thanks to the Internet they have an opportunity to keep up their relations and even to see each other.
Mass media inform us of a wide range of problems and give us an opportunity to educate. They create moral and political climate in our society.
Millions of people in their spare time watch TV, read newspapers, magazines or listen to the radio. Everybody can find there smth interesting for him thanks to Mass Media.
№13. Choosing a Profession
Choosing the kind of career is probably one of the most important decisions in our life. There are many interesting and useful professions and it’s really not an easy task to make the right choice.
I’m convinced that everybody is interested in establishing oneself in life. Work is an opportunity to plan and order our life. The career sounds interesting to me if I can get a prestigious profession, good working conditions and steady wages.
The choice of profession depends on your abilities. If you are good at humanities you should choose something in this field. And if you are good at natural sciences you should choose something closely connected with them. I would like to become a chemist because I like chemistry. I think that it is a very interesting subject, but I am not so good at it so I think that I am not suitable for this profession. Inspite of all I possess some qualities which are needed in this field.
I think that my future profession will be closely connected with computers. I am capable to work with them, and I also possess the qualities needed in this work. They are accuracy, energy, carefulness. But I hesitate if I have enough patience. I must develop it if I want to become a computer operator. I know that it would be better to choose a profession of an interpreter or any other occupation connected with Russian and literature because I am good at these subjects but when I began to study the computer skills that was what I have been looking for. In our modern world it’s hard to do without computers. They are needed everywhere, and I hope that my interests in this subject will never change inspite of any circumstances.
I originally became interested in the sphere of communication in my early teens. Telecommunications have brought us new lifestyle. Satellite television, electronic mail, fax, Internet, cellular telephones have changed the way we communicate, get and exchange information. Work, social life, politics, education-telecommunications are coming everywhere and provide new unique opportunities. New millennium will bring us to new horizons of social, political and economic interaction in the virtual world of modern telecommunicating.
Choosing the Higher State College of Communication I did a lot of thinking about the things I like to do and do well. I thought over my future employment and chances of promotion. One of the main principles of education in our college is to unite theory and practice. So we have lectures, seminars, laboratory works and practice. I want my skills to be in great demand. It’s a matter of responsibility with me to do a good job, to apply my knowledge.
I realize that we live in a competitive world and I try to face the situation realistically. My parents always encourage me. I hope that after graduating from the college I will be able to get a suitable job which will satisfy my priorities.
I would like to show you round a country which for me as well as for many others has always been the centre of the Universe and at the same time the most cosy and fascinating nook. Belarus is a republic in Eastern Europe which borders on Russia to the North and to the East, on the Ukraine in the South, on Poland in the West, on Latvia and Lithuania in the North-East.
There are a lot of versions about the origin of the name of our country “Belarus”. Here are two of them. Firstly, the white clothes of the ancient villages, their fair hair, and the whiteness of their skin. And the second one. When our ancient Slav lands were invaded by Tatars and Mongols, we alone were able to keep them at bay. We drove back the enemy. For this reason we are called “white”, meaning that part of Russia is free from Tatar invasion.
The territory of present-day Belarus was first populated in the early Stone Age by Eastern Slavic tribes, the ancestors of Belarusians – the Krivichi, Drigavichi and Radimichi. In the 14th century Belarus became a part of the Great Duchy of Lithuania. In the 18th century the territory of Belarus appeared under Russian rule followed by russification. A revival of the literary Belarusian language, expressed by a remarkable school of poets – Yanka Kupala, Yakub Kolas, Zmitrok Byadulya, Maxim Bagdanovich.
The present-day state emblem and national flag of the republic were adopted in 1995. Since that time the national emblem and the national flag together with the national anthem have been symbolizing the independence of the Republic of Belarus. In the modern world these symbols have preserved our significance and are widely used as in everyday public life, so in diplomatic and other international rituals. Belarus is the first republic to let national ornaments appear on the national flag. It was an innovation.
You know the Belarussians like any other peoples have a lot of ancient tradition and customs. During the years of soviet power much have been done to make people forget their national language, history and traditions. But they are still alive (Chrismas, Easter,Trinity Hiliday).
My favorite Belarusian holiday is Kupala night with its strongly marked pagan foundation. Young people collect old things and make a Kupala fire in a forest or on a river bank. In the middle of the fire they usually put an old wheel. They jump over the fire to clear themselves of the evil. And everybody tries to find the fan-flower. The person who finds it will become rich a will understand the animals’ and birds’ language. It is the night of wonders.
№15. Famous People of Belarus.
Our motherland has always been rich in gifted people who bring fame and glory to their nation. Among them you can find the names of politicians and public figures, intellectuals, scientists, heroes of war and labor, artists and sportsmen. The worlds know the names of our outstanding writes Yanka Kupala and Yakub Kolas. They created new Belorussian literature and the Belorussian literary language. Both are considered to be the classics of Belorussian literature. These names are followed by a number of other well-known writers and poets such as Krapiva, Chorny, Bycov, Shamyakin, Karatkevich known both in our country and abroad. Their works are translated into many European languages.
The cultural life of Belarus has always been very interesting and varied. Among the leading composers of the present century are Churkin, Bogatyrev, Smolsky and representatives of the old generation: Lukas, Luchenok, and Olovnikov.
Plenty of prominent names in the history of Belarus of the 20th century are connected with the two main events: the Second World War and space explorations. We are especially proud of the heroes of the last war: Zaslonov, Osipov, Gastelo, the defenders of the Brest fortress and many others. In the family of cosmonauts there are also two Belorussians Kovalenok and Klimuk.
A great number of prominent names are connected with the history of our country. I can’t help mentioning Euphrosine of Polotsk, who served the noble idea of the Belorussian Enlightenment. She rejects the common life of any woman, who was traditionally associated with a husband, children and a family. Now we can only wonder how many books from her workshop were served, how many pupils finished her schools and how long those schools existed.
So, I think each epoch gives birth to some people who bring glory to their nation. Fransick Scarina was one of the first printers, enlightener, humanitarian and a scholar of the Renaissance period. Being the son of the Polatsk merchant he obtained a Bachelor’s degree and then the degree of Doctor of Science. The most important of his achievements was the translation and publication of the Bible into the Belorussian language and he is today by right called the First East Slav and Belorussian printer. His aim and desire were to spread the written language, public education and culture. In the prefaces and comments to his books that were of religious character he brought forth his ideas and views that influenced social, political and cultural life of Slav people and stimulated the progress of the Belorussian literature and writing.
More than 2000 years ago on the banks of the Nemiga and Svisloch rivers appeared the city of Minsk or Mensk as it was called before. The name of the city is associated with the river Menka that flowed into the lake Ptych not far from the city – but the legends say that the city derived its name from the word “mena” as in the ancient times there was a barter market on the right bank of the Svisloch. Minsk was first mentioned in a chronicle in 1067. In the 12th century Mensk became the center of the independent principality. In the 13th century the principality of Mensk became part of the great Duchy of Lithuania.
The 14th -15th centuries were very important in the life of Mensk and its inhabitants. It was the period when the Belarusian nation was formed with its national language and culture. In the middle of the 16th century the Lithuanian princes united with the Polish Kingdom and formed a joined State Rzecz Pospolita. It was at that period when Mensk was renamed into Minsk. In the 18th century Belarus was ruled by Russia. It was turned into a province with Minsk as its center. In 1812 the Napoleon troops burnt the city. In the 20th century the foreign invaders not once occupied the Belarussian capital: in 1918 it was occupied by Germany; in 1919-1920 by Poland. During the World War II our capital was almost completely destroyed by the fascists invaders. We can say that in the post-war years it was rebuilt anew. This year we are going to celebrate 933rd anniversary.
At present Minsk is the capital of the Republic of Belarus, which is an independent state with its own state symbols, Parliament and President. It’s a big growing city with a population of about 2 million. It occupies an area of 2 hundred square km. Every visitor admires the city with its beautiful buildings, wide streets and avenues, green parks and fine monuments. Minsk is also a big traffic center with a large network of roads, railways, airlines and 2 Metro lines.
It goes without saying that Minsk is an industrial center of Belarus. There are hundreds of plants and factories in the city, which produce various goods. Tractors and lorries, motorcycles and bicycles, TV-sets and watches, refrigerators and computers, textile and footwear are manufactured here.
Minsk is a large cultural center. It has a great number of museums where you can see a lot of documents, photographs, models and archaeological discoveries which shed light on the development of the Belarussian culture: the Museum of Police, Maxim Bogdanovich’s Museum, Literary History museum, National Art
One of the chief glories in Minsk is Trinity Suburbs, a delight of every visitor of taste. It is a tangle of narrow streets lined with a fascinating array of literal craft and curio shops. Delightful small houses seem to whisper their secrets to each other.
№17. Great Britain
The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is situated on two large isles, the larger of which is Great Britain, the smaller is Ireland. In addition to these two islands Great Britain includes over five hundreds small islands. The total area of Great Britain is 240,000 sq. kms, its population is 56,000,000 people.
In the northwest and west, the country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, in the east — by the North Sea. The island of Great Britain is separated from France by the English Channel. Northern Ireland, which is a part of Great Britain and which is situated on the island of Ireland, is separated from Great Britain by the North Channel.
The island of Great Britain is divided into two parts: mountainous (in the north and west of the island) and lowland (in the south and east). There are no very long rivers in Great Britain. The most important rivers are the Thames (the deepest) and the Severn (the longest). The rivers seldom freeze in winter. Due to moderating influence of the sea, Great Britain has an insular climate, rather humid and mild, without striking discrepancy between seasons.
Great Britain consists of four main parts: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Great Britain is divided into 55 counties. The biggest cities of Great Britain are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh, and Cardiff. England is the largest part of Great Britain (it occupies over 50 % of the territory and its population amounts to 83 % of the total population of Great Britain).
Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. Officially, the head of the state is the Queen (or the King). However, the power of the Queen in Great Britain is not absolute. She acts only on the advice of the ministers and Parliament. There is no written constitution in Great Britain. The main principles of British legislation are expressed in other documents, like «Magna Charta», «Habeas Corpus Act», «Bill of Rights», the Parliamentary Act that decided the position of the House of Lords, the Judicature Act, etc. The British legislation does not provide written guarantees of individual political rights.
The Parliament consists of two Houses — the House of Lords and the House of Commons. As a rule, the Prime Minister is the leader of the party that has won the election. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers to compose the government.There are two main political parties in Great Britain: the Conservative party and the Labour party. The Conservative party came into being in the 19th century as a result of the evolution of the Tory party. The Labour party was founded in 1900. Since 1906 it has borne the name of the Labour Part. For the first time the Labour Party won the election in 1945.
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. The main fields of British industry are machine building, shipbuilding, metallurgy, electronics, etc.
London, the capital of the UK, is the greatest town and port on the British Isles. It is it’s political, economic and commercial center. Numerous historical and cultural places of interest on its territory remind of the tremendous past of the country.
№18. Customs and Traditions of Great Britain
Every country and every nation has its own traditions and customs. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up.
The English people say, «There is no place like home». They like to spend their days off at home with their families. They like to live in small houses with a small garden. People all over the world know the saying «The Englishman’s home is his castle». In English homes the fire-place has always been the centre of interest in the room. For many months of the year people like to sit round the fire in the evening.
English people keep to their traditions even in meals. Porridge is the dish Englishmen are very fond of. Many of them eat porridge with milk and sugar for breakfast. The English are tea-drinkers. They have it many times a day. Some Englishmen have tea for breakfast, tea at lunch time, tea after dinner, tea at tea-time and tea with supper.
Every country has its drinking habits and a national drink. In England it is beer. English beer is always warm: it’s sold in pubs (short for «public house») where people talk, eat, drink, meet their friends and relax.
It’s common knowledge, the British talk about the weather a lot. They do it because the weather in Britain changes so often. Wind, rain, sun, cloud, snow — they can all happen in Britain both in winter and in summer.
Hundreds of years ago soldiers began the tradition of shaking hands. They shook hands to show that they did not have a sword. Now shaking hands is a custom in most countries. Frenchmen and Russians shake hands every time they meet, while Englishmen do it only when they are introduced, or after a long absence. Young ladies never shake men’s hands. Married ladies can offer their hands in a room, but not in public, where they should bow slightly.
On Sundays theatres and shops are closed, people do not get letters and newspapers. Very few cars and buses run in the streets of London on Sundays.
The Theatre Royal in Drury Lane is one of the oldest theatres in London. The king was present at the performance; that is why it was called the Theatre Royal. The theatre has many traditions. One of them is the Badely cake, which began in the eighteenth century. Robert Badely was a pastry-cook who became an actor and joined the Theatre Royal. He was a good actor, and the plays in which he acted were a great success with the people of London. When Robert Badely was very old, he left some money to the theatre. Robert Badely asked to buy cake and offer a piece of it to each actor and actress of the theatre on Twelfth Night every year. Twelfth Night is the 6lh of January, the twelfth night after Christmas. After the evening performance on the Twelfth Night, the actors and actresses come down into the hall in their stage clothes and eat the Badely cake.
Art is defined in encyclopedias as the process and result of making material works, which reflect beauty or reality. Art plays an important role in our life. There are a lot of kinds of art – cinema, television, theatre, music, literature. Art develops our artistic taste and helps to appreciate beauty, to solve the eternal problem of good and evil. It enriches our life emotionally.
Art includes various forms such as prose writing, poetry, dance, acting, sculpture, painting, music, etc. New forms include photography, film, video art, conceptual art, performance art, land art, fashion, comics, computer art. Within each form, a wide range of genres may exist.
Of all the forms of art, I prefer painting and music. I am really interested in painting for several reasons. Firstly, it is one of the oldest forms of art. Humans have been painting for about 6 times as long as they have been writing. The oldest painting found is over 32,000 years old. Painting is a form of art which is believed by many to express feelings and ideas in the visual form. Using visual images — colours, light and shade, forms and shape, a painter makes us understand his concept of life, share his feelings and enjoy the beauty of the world. Secondly, painting offers you a wide choice of styles, it allows us to be as specific or abstract as we please.
The second form of art I am really keen on is music. The term ‘music’ is difficult to define. It can be explained, for example, as the art of making pleasing combinations of sounds in rhythm, harmony and counterpoint. The music that composers make can be heard through several media; the most traditional way is to hear it live, in the presence of performers. Live music can also be broadcast over the radio, television or the internet. Firstly, music helps me relax and relieve stress. When I listen to music, classical, jazz, rap or any other type of music I enjoy, I forget about the troubles of everyday life; music provides an escape from everyday problems. Stress melts away as I am taken in by the beauty of the music. It can help me feel calm and deeply relaxed. Secondly, music affects my emotions. Each type of music sets distinct mood and changes mine. In doing so, it appeals both to my mind and to the subconscious. Whether I am feeling sad, frustrated or confused, I listen to merry or tender music, and my mood shifts.
Theatre is a popular kind of arts, too. The most famous theatres in Minsk are the Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Music Comedy Theatre, the Gorky Russian Drama Theatre, the Yanka Kupala State Academic Theatre, the Puppet Show Theatre. You can also go to the Circus or to the Philharmonic.
Nowadays theatres are becoming less and less popular, and cinema has got big popularity instead. There are a lot of cinemas in Minsk: modern and old-fashioned, cheap and expensive. Modern films are full of audio and computer special effects and people go to the cinema to enjoy them. The so-called home cinemas have appeared lately. More and more people buy modern TV-sets with large flat screens and special sound equipment and watch films at home.
Unfortunately I do not have any talent for this or that art. I used to sing in childhood, but then I gave it up. I think that arts are not for me.
№20. Nature Protection.
In the middle of the xxth century man for the first time saw his planet as it looks from space. From space we see a small fragile ball. The ball is wrept in a thin atmosphere. There is no outlet. There is no inlet. It is a closed system.
Together and left alone land, air and water work well as an “ecosystem” to maintain this great chain of life and the delicate balance of nature, from ocean depth to mountain top
But man, since he first rose up on two legs, has been tampering with this system. He cannot help it. Everything we do alters our environment: the ways we grow food and build shelters and create what we call “culture” and “civilization”.
Now entering the XXIth century, we face the shocking realization that we have gone too far, too fast and too carelessly. It is nobody’s fault and it is everybody’s fault. The real culprits are the three main currents of the XXth century- population, industrialization and urbanization. Together these and mightily currents of history have acted to pollute the air, the land and the waters- and three rapid to accelerate our mounting less of beauty and privacy, quiet and recreation.
The more we produce and consume, the more waste products we send into the air.
Now we throw out 150 million tons of pollution into the atmosphere and this is a course of the greenhouse effect or global warming. It is the most devastating environmental problem. Such gases as carbon dioxide (CO2) let in solar heat, but prevent it returning to space. Scientists predict raising of the temperature at the earth’s surface and as a result flooding the coastal cities of the world.
Another problem that we are facing to now is a problem of ozone layers. This layer of ozone gas encircles the planet prevent letting in the sun’s damaging ultraviolet rays. But now the ozone layer is thinning and ultraviolet radiation is increasing.
Many big industrial cities have a problem of smog. It is a mixture of smog and fog. The risks associated with town smog include asthma, allergic conditions, chronic bronchitis and lung diseases.
We need interactions, new technologies, new industrial models of operation and responsible policy. We need also environmental considerations at all levels by government, by business, by organizations, by you and me as individuals.
The most horrible ecological disaster befell Belarus and its people in the result of the Chernobyl tragedy. The Chernobyl catastrophe, which happened in April 1986, really shocked the whole world. About 18 per cent of the territory of Belarus was polluted with radioactive substances. A great damage has been done to the republic’s agriculture and forests and people’s health.